“In managing the climate challenge, no one can be distant and unilateralism will get us nowhere,” Xi said. “Only by maintaining multilateralism, unity and cooperation can we achieve common benefits and win-win situations for all nations.” Dr. Jan Ivar Korsbakken, a climate economics expert at the CICERO Center for International Climate Research, says that while the analysis is “compelling when read on its own terms,” it should not be read “as a final projection” for China`s peak emissions. He recounts Carbon Brief: Among the specific results of the increased focus on financing adjustment in Paris are the announcement by G7 countries of a $420 million package for climate risk insurance and the launch of a Climate Risk and Early Warning Systems (CREWS) initiative.  In 2016, the Obama administration gave the Green Climate Fund a $500 million grant as “the first part of a $3 billion commitment made at the Paris climate negotiations.”    So far, the Green Climate Fund has received more than $10 billion in commitments. It should be noted that industrialized countries such as France, the United States and Japan, but also developing countries such as Mexico, Indonesia and Vietnam, have made commitments.  (b) improve the capacity to adapt to the negative effects of climate change and promote climate resilience and the development of low greenhouse gas emissions so as not to jeopardise food production; (c) reconciling financial flows with a means of achieving low greenhouse gas emissions and climate-resilient developments. Therefore, China is on track to meet its peak 2030 target and exceed its NDC targets for carbon intensity and non-fossil fuel share, without making significant progress in its action to combat climate change. To date, many sectors have already recovered to their pre-pandemic production levels and emissions have reacted accordingly. It is therefore essential that China give additional impetus in Q3 and Q4 to scuttle the new coal boom that could begin and devote reconstruction efforts to clean, low-emission infrastructure and energy projects, especially before the completion of the 14th Five-Year Plan next year. The U.S.
withdrawal will also justify other major emitters not taking on future climate change adaptation and mitigation costs. The UK, which was the first G20 economy to legislate this year towards a net zero target for 2050, has just seen its chancellor break the government`s commitments, as set out in its July green financing strategy. Further cuts in climate commitments could soon be the norm when the U.S. leaves the Paris driver`s seat. After a G20 summit in June, tarnished by US opposition to the climate talks, China and France made a joint statement with Guterres in which they pledged to raise their targets. The move was seen as an important signal that China intends to play a leading role in the fight against climate change next year and introduce strict new targets. “This reflects China`s considerable efforts to mitigate climate change and the `new normal` of the economy, which would go a long way to the Paris Agreement limiting global warming to 2°C or less by the end of the century.” While China`s long-term goal may not cover carbon dioxide-free greenhouse gases, the country must also address these gases; Current non-carbon dioxide emissions in China have warming emissions greater than all greenhouse gas emissions from Japan or Brazil. The adoption of guidelines on the management of these gases in the 2030 climate commitment could facilitate their definitive integration into China`s long-term vision. Adaptation issues required increased attention during the formation of the Paris Agreement. Long-term collective adjustment targets are included in the agreement and countries are accountable for their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel element of the agreement with reduction.  Adjustment targets focus on improving adaptive capacity, increasing resilience and limiting vulnerability.
 The Alliance of Small Island States and Least Developed Countries, whose economies and livelihoods are most vulnerable to the negative effects of climate change, has taken the lead in addressing loss and damage as an issue in its own right of the Paris Agreement.  However, industrialized countries were concerned that classifying the problem as a separate problem and, beyond adaptation measures, would create an additional climate finance clause or imply legal liability for catastrophic climate events. . . .