But on the whole, Russia and Turkey, which make no effort to challenge their actions or use disagreements between them in a strategic decoupling, will continue to use proxy conflicts like this to violently change the conditions in their favor. Finally, they both showed a readiness to fail to meet international standards and adopt high-risk strategies to reorganize the regional and global order. Armenia and Azerbaijan also remain ready to resort to violence again if the terms of the agreement are not applied, interpreted differently or if red lines such as the target of civilians or the widespread destruction of cultural heritage are exceeded on the ground. The question now is whether the leaders of both countries can avoid nationalist pressure to continue to adopt positions of prosecutor, xenophobia and maximalism in all negotiations arising from the 9 November agreement. If these talks fail, the ceasefire could still fail. Many previous hot spots remain a source of hostility. Years of clashes ensued between Azerbaijani forces and Armenian separatists. The violence continued until the 1990s, leaving tens of thousands dead and pushing back hundreds of thousands. In 1994, Russia negotiated a ceasefire in which ethnic Armenians had taken control of the region. The Nagorno-Karabakh ceasefire agreement in 2020 is a ceasefire agreement that ended the Nagorno-Karabakh war in 2020.
Signed on 9 November by Azerbaijani President Ilham Aliyev, Prime Minister Nikol Pachinjan and Russian President Vladimir Putin, it ended all hostilities in the Nagorno-Karabakh region from 00:00, 10 November 2020 Moscow time.   The President of the self-declared Artsakh Republic, Arayik Harutyunyan, also agreed to the end of hostilities.  A war between the Armenian and Azerbaijani armed forces ended in 1994 with a ceasefire, with Armenia having full control of Nagorno-Karabakh and other surrounding enclaves of Azerbaijani territory. Azerbaijan is predominantly Muslim and Armenia is predominantly Christian, and some elements on both sides are trying to pour the conflict into religious terms. In Azerbaijan, President Ilham Aliyev believes he has obtained enough benefits to call for peace and reconciliation on his terms, after bringing his nation back from humiliating losses in the last Karabakh war in the 1990s. By the time the Azerbaijani armed forces advanced, the cost of the offensive for life and resources had increased, with thousands of their troops and hundreds of civilians killed (Azerbaijan refused to publish the death toll). Had the conflict continued in Stepanakert, the capital of Nagorno-Karabakh, the resulting brutality could have further damaged Azerbaijan`s political position, particularly among Azerbaijani gas customers in the West, who had expressed concern about Aliyev`s human rights violations and had already considered sanctions against arms exports to Azerbaijan. The 9 November agreement raised fears that a possible Turkish land bridge between Turkey and Central Asia would limit Iran`s access to its land border with southern Armenia.